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White Papers

Passive Intermodulation in Low Power Components

Passive Intermodulation (PIM) is a significant challenge that the wireless industry faces. When PIM products fall within the uplink (Rx) band, the level must be below the noise floor of the receiver. The industry standard definition for PIM is in dBc (decibels below the carrier) relative to 2 tones of 20W each (2x20W). Measurements are typically conducted on 3rd order PIM products due to the E-UTRA Downlink and Uplink band separations, but sometimes higher order PIM products are tested. As the industry and equipment has evolved the typical specifications have gone from -140dBc, to -153dBc, to -161dBc.

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Digital GPS Repeaters for Wireless Network Timing

Modern wireless telecommunications networks rely on accurate frequency and precise timing to synchronize base stations and mobile devices throughout the network. Unlike older 2G/3G wireless technologies which required only an accurate frequency reference, GPS timing signals are used today to ensure optimal signal quality & coverage, high speed data service with high capacity, spectral efficiency and advanced features.

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Addressing small cell issues: Size and RF performance

In order to deploy 5G, the next generation of mobile network architectures that promises increasing speeds and lower latency, the network must be densified. Densification implies more cell sites in more locations and getting the signal closer to the users. This means significantly more small cells – there is simply no choice other than to put more radios into the network.

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PIM Requirements for Low Power Wireless Components and Subsystems

Passive intermodulation, PIM, continues to be a concern for high speed Wireless networks. A good understanding of how it impacts the network operation and how to detect and avoid it has been rapidly developing.

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